AN INTRODUCTION TO KERMAN
Kerman is one of the big cities of Iran and it is the capital of Kerman province in southeastern part of Iran. It is located in the center of Kerman city and its population, according to Census 2006, the Statistical Center of Iran, was equal 515,114.
HISTORY OF KERMAN
In the Islamic historical and geographical documents, the name of Kerman region has been mentioned as Karmania, Germania, Kermania, Kariman, Karmani Kermani and Butiya. Some geographers have called its old name as Govashir. Govashir refers to Kooreh Ardshir or the city of Ardshir which gradually changed into Govashir. This city because of its six gates during the old eras is well-known as a city with six gates.
BEFORE ISLAM EMERGENCE
Qaleh Dokhtar (Girl Castle) and Qaleh Ardshir (Ardshir/Artaxerxes Castle), the monuments of Sassanid era in the eastern part of Kerman – as their ruins are there – indicate that there has been an important city or castle in this area during the era of Ardshir Babakan. The author of Kerman's geography believes that, about 220 BC, when Artaxerxes conquered Kerman, the name of this place was "Govashir" and it was the main center of Kerman. According to Herodotus, Kermania is one of the twelve tribes of Iran, and Satrapi XIV (Darius) included Kerman province. Based on the mythological narrations, it must be noted that Keykhosrow has bestowed Kerman and Mokran to Rostam. As well, some evidences indicate that Bahman has governed Kerman. Regarding this point, the historical narration of this land begins and it shows that Cyrus considered it as the exile place of Nonid during the Achaemenid era. Then, the defeat of Parthians' government occurred and Ardshir (Artaxerxes) was appointed as the governor of Kerman. It had been said that Kerman was the last resort of 3rd Yazdgerd of Sassanid king.
AFTER ISLAM EMERGENCE
During the Islamic period coincides with 21 - 24 AH and the years later, Kerman has always been invaded by Arabs. During the reign of the Abbasid caliphs, repeated rebellions have been occurred in Kerman, but none of them was effective until in 253 AH, Yaqub Leith, the founder of Safarian hierarchy, governed and seized it. Then, this land has been under the domination of powerful governments such as the Samanid, Dylamiyan, Al Buyeh and was Salajeqeh. During the era of Qaznaviyan, discomfort of people has been provided by the violent rulers but in the time of Seljuks, during the reign of Malek Qavord and her children, Kerman faced tranquility and the monumental building such as Malek mosque has been built. After 150 years of Seljuks, different events were revealed to Kerman. By Mongol invasion, Baraq Hajib, one of Qarakhatayids' commanders of Kerman, seized it as well, Turkan Khatun ruled Kerman who tried to develop the city of Kerman and her daughter, Padeshah Khatun, was a wise scholar. This dynasty governed Kerman 619 to 703 AH. During the era of Qarakhatayids, Marco Polo, a Venetian traveler, visited Kerman. In 714 AH, Amir Mubariz al-Din Muhammad, the founder of al-Muzaffar, seized Kerman. Timurid governed Kerman 796 to 834. Then, some of the tribes of Qaraqaviyunlu have been governed Kerman. 915 AD, Safavid kings captured and seized Kerman. In 1005 AH, Ganjalykhan, during the Safavid era, governed Kerman and regarding his prudence and discretion, Kerman faced serenity and tranquility and also he provided the fields of progress and prosperity of Kerman. At the decline time of Safavids, Afghans punished Kerman for their courage and resistance and Nadir Shah arrived in Kerman when he was affected by homicidal maniac problem (due to killing Rezagholi Mirza as his son). He ordered the beheading of innocent people of Kerman, which is one of the largest massacres in the history of Kerman. The era of Nadir Shah and his activities in 1160 are so obvious in Kerman's history such as killing the innocent people of Kerman (beheading or cutting the heads of people) and making minarets their heads. Pamenar area in Kerman indicates this history and it is the legacy of bitter memories of that catastrophe and the regrettable crimes of that period. Kerman has not faced the reign of Karim Khan Zand as a friendly and compassionate ruler. He could not seize Kerman under his power. So this city had not seen such reign and due to the support of the last survivor of Zand (Lotf Ali Khan), it encountered the anger of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar as seven kilograms (or twenty thousand pairs of eyes or seventy thousand pairs of eyes) of the eyes of helpless people had been pulled out by his order. Although his successors tried to renovate Kerman and forget or oblivion the past and bad memories by sending the skillful and competent rulers such as Mohammad Ismail Khan Noori "Vakil al-Mulk" and "Ibrahim Khan Zahiroldoleh" and by creating the buildings such as Vakil and Ibrahim Khan Complexes, the question is that such measures have been effective in achieving that intended aim or not. The answer of this question is consigned to history.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
Kerman weather is varied. For example, in its northern parts which are near the desert, arid climate is governed, and the temperate and pleasant climate is in its southern part. In Kerman, the average height above sea level is 1755 meters. Most parts of Kerman city is surrounded by mountains. Winter nights of Kerman are very cold. Mountains of Joopar, Polvar and Joftan in the South and South-East of Kerman are full of snow all year. During the year, the average amount of rainfall in Kerman is equivalent to 135 mm. Because of its proximity to the Lut Desert, this city is hot in summer and is along with sandstorms in spring, but in general, its weather is relatively cool. The weather of the northern and north-eastern parts of Kerman which are near Sahebalzaman Mountains is temperate and the southern and western parts of this city due to its proximity to the desert are warm in summer and are along with more dust.
Tourism places of Kerman are accounted as the historical and cultural areas. The most important ones are presented as follows:
- Qaleh Dokhtar (girl castle) and Qaleh Ardshir (Artaxerxes castle) are the monumental buildings of architecture which are attributed to the architecture of pre-Islam era and they are the historical buildings of Kerman and they attract the attention of their visitors. These buildings are divided into two separate parts. One of them is placed on the topper most of a castle which is in the eastern south side and it has been called as the castle of mountain as well; it is separated the other castle because of its natural position. The other part is on the short hill and it was called as the Qaleh Dokhtar or Anahita Fire House. Qaleh Ardshir (Artaxerxes castle) is located on a top of a hill as its height to the level of a plain is about 500 feet. The walls of this castle are the very thick molds.
- Malek mosque was built in the fifth century and at the time of the Seljuk, Turanshah.
- Oshtaqiyeh is the tomb of Ali Shah which is also known for its three domes and it is one of the architectural works of the thirteenth century.
- Great Mosque of Kerman or Mozaphari Great Mosque is the buildings of the 8th century. This mosque is one a mosques with four Ivans with a big gate, Sahn or yard, and Ivan. The most important parts of this building are its Mihrab with glazed tile (mosaic) works and also its entrance gate in the eastern side.
- Jabalieh dome as one of the monuments attributed to the Sassanid era (or attributed to the Seljuk era) is located in the East of Kerman and also it was called as Gabri Dome. Its octagonal plan and several arches on its sides are obvious. What is resulted its architectural style is that it is attributed to late Sassanid and it has been build regarding the Sassanid architecture during the early Islamic.
- Moayedi ice house has been built in order to store ice and it is located in the intersection of Abu Hamid and Khorshid Streets.
- Kerman bazar in terms of its size and architecture is so prominent in Iran and the other markets of this country.
- Ganjalykhan complex consists of Ganjalykhan Square, Ganjalykhan School, Ganjalykhan Bathroom, Mint and Water Reservoir. It has been built in the era of Safavid and Ganjali Khan over Kerman.
- Ibrahim Khan Complex has been built by Ibrahim Khan Zahiroldoleh, the ruler of Kerman (Qajar era) and it consists of Bazar, Bathrooms, Water Reservoir, School and Home School of Teachers.
- Vakil Complex which has been built by the order of one of the other rulers of Kerman during the reign of Qajar includes Vakil Bazar (Kerman), Vakil Bathroom (Kerman) and vakil Karvansara (Kerman).
- Sanati Museum including a valuable treasure of the contemporary artistic works such as patings, statues of Ali Akbar Sanati, etc is located in Shariati Street near Bagheh Melli Square and Tahmasb Abad Intersection.
- Pamenar Mosque is one of the buildings of the 8th century and it is one of the historical monuments of Al Mozaphar.
- Green Dome is one of the buildings of the 7th century. This building has been built the structure of a school and tomb of Qarakhatayids of Kerman. The most beautiful part of this building is its tile working or mosaic designs which are so unique. Two tendril or ivy shaped form columns are beautiful around this Ivan.
- Qaem Jungle Park with huge trees and non-natural waterfalls around it as well as the hiking paths on the mountains of Sahebalzaman and also several parks and … are the recreational places for the people of Kerman.
- Fire temple and the museum of Zoroastrian in Kerman including a remarkable population of Zoroastrians are the places for celebrating the traditions of the Zoroastrian followers.
- Kerman is one of the cities that celebrates Sadeh or the centenary (national celebration of Iran) every year on 10th of February. Takht Dargah Qoli Beig port in the southeastern part of Kerman near the south of Qaem Jungle is located on a mountain attracts the eye of each visitor. This place is the tomb of one of the descendants of Bahram Beig called Dargah Qoli Beig. Dargah Qoli Beig is one of the rulers of late Safavid period and the head of Afshar Tribe in Kerman.
- Great Museum of Holy Defense has been built in order to appraise 8000 martyrs of Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan and commemorate the generals shows the courage of Kermanians during this period.
- Museum of Shahid Bahonar: This museum is the father's house of Shahid Bahonar as the first Prime Minister of Shahid Rajai martyr and it is located on Shahid Bahonar street is.
- Mahan Shahzadeh Garden is located in Mahan, as one of the cities of Kerman, and it is at a distance of 30 kilometers Kerman on the eastern side of Joopar mountains and Tigran valley.
- Shrine of Shah Nematolah Vali as the well-known sage of Kerman is located in Mahan.
IMPORTANT STREETS OF KERMAN
- The most important streets of Kerman are Shariati, Islamic Jomhoori Boulevard, Azadi Square, Hezaro Yekshab Street, Safa, Alghadir, Shahb, Isteqlal, Montazari or Jihad, Motahari, Khorshid, Mirza Aqa Khan, Molavi, Hafez, Sa'adi, Imam Khomeini, Sarbaz, Zarisf, Shah (Nematollah Vali), 22 Bahman Boulevard, Abuzar, Resalat, Moshtaq, Khajoo, and 24 Mehr Boulevard.
NATURAL TOURISM PLACES
- Koohpayeh consists of several villages in the eastern north of Kerman is located in the mountains of the north side and they are good for the people of Kerman especially during the warm seasons. The waterfall of Koohpayeh is so enjoyable.
- Seh Konj area is a very beautiful summer place with enjoyable weather in the east of Mahan.
- Sirch is beautiful village in the south east of Kerman and it is the place of Hooshang Moraadi Kerman as the well-known writer of Iran. This village is full of snow during the cold seasons such as winter. In a case of passing this snowy road for 15 minutes, we can reach Shahdad area which is so hot and it is prominent because of its Kaluts. Sirch consists of several hot springs or spas.
- Joopar is located in the southern side of Kerman near Mahan and it is eminent because of its mountains. The mountains of Joopar are the good places for hiking and mountaineering teams.
- Tigaran valley is a place with good weather on the edge of Joopar Mountains and it is above Shahzadeh garden in Mahan. Near this valley, there is the tomb of Bi Bi Gerami.
- Vali Abad port including several villages is located in the east and east south of Kerman. The most important villages are Deh Bala, Ginkan, Dehyari, Deh Yasaeei, Deh Mohammad Shah, etc.
- Davaran village is located in 35 kilometers of the east of Rafsanjan and Zarand – Rafsanjan Road. This village because of its green spaces, being in the highest points, fruit gardens, etc is so beautiful. The religious places such as Bi Bi Gohar and Shafa Khaneh of Imam Ali (P.B.U.H) are located at the beginning of Davaran and at the uppermost side of this village, respectively.
SOUVENIRS OF KERMAN
Kolompeh, Qavut, Faludeh, Carpets, Pateh, Spices, Caraway Seeds, Henna, Pistachios, Copper Dishes, Changmal, Komacheh Sin, Sohan-e-Zarand and ...
CELEBRITIES OF KERMAN
Khajw Kermani, Hooshang Moradi Kermani, Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani, Ahmad Reza Ahmadi, Ali Akbar Sanati, Parviz Shahriari, Ruhollah Khaleqi, Ali Athari Kermani, Afsar Kermani, Ali Akbar Abdul Rashidi Iraj Kaboli, Ferdos Kawyani, Keykhosrow Shahrokh, Pari Saberi, Farkhondeh Hajizadeh, Hamid Hajizadeh, Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mirza Reza Kermani, Mozaphar Baqaeei, Ahmed Bahmanyar, Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi, Zardosht Bahram Pajdu, Mitra Mansouri, Emad Faqih Kermani, Fo'ad Kermani, Majdo Islam, Moshtaq Ali Shah, Ahmad Nazer Zadeh Kermani, Farnaz Nazer Zadeh Kermani, Abbas Riyazi Kermani, Ali Akbar Sa'aidi Sirjani, Mehdi Rajab Ali Pour, Saeed Nafisi, Shervin Mohebi Kermani, Rustam Saraeei, Mohammad Ibrahim Bastani Parizi, Amir Hossein Iranmanesh named as Amir Ruj.